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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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今日谷雨,也是联合国中文日******

原标题:今日谷雨,也是联合国中文日

今日谷雨。

谷雨是春季最后一个节气。每年4月19日至21日,太阳到达黄经30°时为谷雨,源自古人“雨生百谷”之说,同时也是播种移苗、埯瓜点豆的最佳时节。

二十四节气

春雨惊春清谷天,夏满芒夏暑相连;

秋处露秋寒霜降,冬雪雪冬小大寒。

除了是谷雨,今天还是联合国中文日。

2010年,当时的联合国新闻部将中国传统农历二十四节气中的“谷雨”定为联合国中文日,以纪念“中华文字始祖”仓颉的贡献。

谷雨、联合国中文日、仓颉,它们之间是怎么联系起来的?这都要从仓颉“造字”说起。

谷雨的由来

关于谷雨的由来,有一些比较有趣的传说。据古籍《淮南子》记载,谷雨的由来与仓颉有关。

传说,在四千多年前,轩辕黄帝需要一位才能出众的史官,仓颉便走马上任了。他以结绳记事,把各项事务记录得十分清楚,颇受黄帝赏识。

但后来社会进步了,结绳记事渐渐地不再能够完全满足需求,仓颉十分发愁。

有一次,他恰好跟着一个猎人外出狩猎,猎人指着地上的各种野兽的踪迹向仓颉讲解,如何据此判断野兽的去向。

受到启发的仓颉依类象形,终于创造出文字。

当时天下正遭受灾荒,仓颉造字感动了上天,就下了一场特殊的“雨”,落下数不清的谷米粮食,后人就把这一天叫作“谷雨”。

这是神话传说中谷雨的由来。可是,“中华文字始祖”仓颉是何人?汉字真的是他创造的吗?

仓颉造字

传世文献对此有明确记载。比如,《荀子·解蔽》:“好书者众矣,而仓颉独传者一也。”《吕氏春秋·君守》:“仓颉作书。”《淮南子·本经训》:“昔者仓颉作书而天雨粟,鬼夜哭。”《论衡·骨相》:“仓颉四目,为黄帝史。”

但根据这些记载,我们并不能肯定汉字是仓颉所造。

古往今来,无论是《淮南子》所记载的类似神话的猜想,还是今人依据大量考古资料所做的科学探索,都不能视为给出了明确答案。

古书中有关仓颉的材料,最为大家熟知的就是:“昔者仓颉作书而天雨粟,鬼夜哭”和“仓颉四目,为黄帝史”。

两条材料均极为简略。“天雨粟”“鬼夜哭”“仓颉四目”几乎无异于神话传说,不能当真;“仓颉作书”“为黄帝史”倒是可以拨开迷雾,找寻历史上的蛛丝马迹。

古人不是独对汉字的创造者有过追溯,对上古时期一系列对人类社会发展有重大影响的创造发明者都有过追溯,正如《吕氏春秋·君守》记载:“奚仲作车,仓颉作书,后稷作稼,皋陶作刑,昆吾作陶,夏鲧作城。”

不过,仓颉与其他五人一样,未必是真实的历史人物,若把他当作历史上应该存在过的对该事件起过重要作用的某个或某类人的象征符号,倒是客观得多。

仓颉“为黄帝史”这一传说传递出一个重要信息,就是汉字的创造者与史官有关。

甲骨文、金文中均有很多“史”的记载,他们或主持祭祀祝祷,或记事,或宣读册命等,部分用作族氏名,而“史”这一族氏就源于其职官。

史官作为早期负责文字记录事务的人,是当时识字水平和文化程度最高的人,他们对文字的整理、传承、改造和规范自然作出过重要贡献。

文字的发明之于仓颉,与制礼作乐之于周公、造纸术之于蔡伦等历史上其他重大事件一样,都是集众多前人智慧于一身,或者进行系统整理,或者加以改进提升,于是因逐渐普及而广为人知。

这正如《荀子》所记载的:“故好书者众矣,而仓颉独传者,壹也;好稼者众矣,而后稷独传者,壹也。好乐者众矣,而夔独传者,壹也;好义者众矣,而舜独传者,壹也。”

由此看来,仓颉连接起了传统的二十四节气与现代的联合国中文日。

小知识

联合国英文日是4月23日。这是英国著名剧作家、诗人威廉·莎士比亚(1564.4.23—1616.4.23)的诞辰、逝世纪念日。这一天也是世界读书日。

联合国西班牙文日也是4月23日。这是西班牙伟大作家塞万提斯(1547.9.29—1616.4.23)的逝世纪念日。

联合国法文日是3月20日。这也是“全球法语日”,是为了纪念法语国家组织的成立。法语国家组织成立于1970年,目前有57个正式成员和20个观察员。

联合国俄文日是6月6日。这一天,是俄罗斯著名文学家、诗人、小说家亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金(1799.6.6—1837.1.29)的诞辰纪念日。

联合国阿拉伯语日是12月18日。这是为了纪念1973年12月18日联大通过决议将阿拉伯语列为联合国正式工作语言之一。

情报员:光明日报、中新网、外研社

编辑员:晓书虫

图片源:网络图片

Countdown to Beijing 2022******

BEIJING, Nov. 23 (Xinhua) -- The Beijing Meteorological Service (BMS) said on Monday that 441 facilities have been set up for weather forecast during Beijing 2022 in the three competition zones of Beijing, Yanqing and Zhangjiakou.。

"The weather forecasting system developed by the meteorological team of Beijing 2022 performed well during the test events, which enabled accurate weather forecast by the minute for a range of 100 meters. The three competition zones now can coordinate to provide meteorological service for participants during the Games," said Liang Feng, deputy director of the BMS.。

Indicators including wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and humidity are decisive in outdoor winter games, and a comprehensive weather forecasting system can protect athletes during the Games, according to the BMS. Enditem。

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Chinese consumers snap up goodies on Singles' Day shopping fest******

HANGZHOU/BEIJING, Nov. 11 (Xinhua) -- With orders pouring in at midnight Wednesday, this year's Singles' Day shopping spree peaked on multiple e-commerce platforms in China.。

This year marks the largest Singles' Day shopping festival on Tmall, with a record 290,000 brands participating and more than 14 million types of commodities offering discounts, according to the company.。

To cater to growing demand from Chinese consumers, presales for this year's Singles' Day shopping spree -- also known as the Double Eleven shopping festival -- began at 8 p.m. on Oct. 20 on Tmall and consumers were allowed to pay for the balance of the pre-sold goods on Nov. 1.。

From Nov. 1 to 12:45 a.m. Thursday, sales of 411 small and medium brands with turnover exceeding 1 million yuan (about 156,000 U.S. dollars) during last year's event on Tmall, surpassed the 10-million yuan threshold.。

Number of brands that saw a turnover of more than 100 million yuan on Tmall reached 382 during the period, including Huawei, Apple and Chinese sportswear brand Erke.。

Between 8 p.m. Wednesday and 2:09 p.m. Thursday, the total value of orders on JD.com, another Chinese e-commerce giant, hit a new record of over 311.4 billion yuan.。

This is also the greenest Singles' Day shopping festival on JD.com, which introduced various measures, including developing recyclable packaging, deploying new-energy cargo vans and using photovoltaic power generation in warehousing, to lower carbon emission and the impact on environment. As a result, the amount of carbon emissions slashed stood at 26,000 tonnes as of Thursday noon.。

The annual event was launched by Alibaba's e-commerce platform on Nov. 11, 2009, and quickly grew into a major shopping spree. Enditem。

Real Madrid face Sheriff as Atletico have vital away trip in Champions League******

MADRID, Sept. 27 (Xinhua) -- Real Madrid and Atletico Madrid are both in Champions League action on Tuesday with Real Madrid facing FC Sheriff Tiraspol and Atletico visiting AC Milan.

Real Madrid entertain the side from Moldova after being held to a 0-0 draw at home to Villarreal in LaLiga and coach Carlo Ancelotti will presumably make some changes to his side with Lucas Vazquez at right back, Fede Valverde pushing into midfield and Eden Hazard likely to be brought back into attack alongside Karim Benzema and Vinicius Jr.

Sherrif are dominating their domestic league and won 7-0 away from home at the weekend and they also kicked off their Champions League campaign with a 2-0 win at home to Shakhtar Donetsk, but are still considered the minnows in their group.

After winning their opening group game 1-0 away to Inter Milan another win for Real Madrid will put them on the fast track to assure their place in the knockout stages of the tournament and allow Ancelotti to rest players in later group matches.

Atletico travel to Italy after a shock defeat to Alaves on Saturday in another game in which they failed to hit the target, managing just one shot on target from 13 efforts on goal during the game.

Diego Simeone's men have failed to score in three of their last four games, but can't afford to lose in Italy after being held 0-0 at home to Porto in their first group game.

Koke should be back in midfield, while Angel Correa and Jose Gimenez will probably start after kicking Saturday's defeat on the bench.

Three more Spanish sides play away on Wednesday, with Sevilla visiting Wolfsburg, Villarreal having a rematch of last season's Europa League final away to Manchester United, and FC Barcelona, who have Ansu Fati available again, having a must-win visit to play Benfica. Enditem

习近平强调,“中国好人”最可贵的地方就是在平凡工作中创造不平凡的业绩

1.雷军交卷:1亿一个功能!逐帧看小米自动驾驶表现

2.英超神剧情!热刺96分钟绝平切尔西 两大名帅冲突染红

3.特朗普问题远比带走几份白宫文件严重 奥巴马被拖下水

4.向中纪委自首的“老虎”被公诉!受处分时多处表述十分罕见

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